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Understanding Land Documents In Nigeria

Land Classification

Land can be classified as either free or acquired. A parcel of land is considered free if the government has not indicated any interest whatsoever in that land. Such land is safe to buy because the title on the land can be perfected without issues.

In most cases, such lands will either have a gazette, a C of O or a governor’s consent.


An Excision means basically taking a part from a whole and that part that has been excised will be recorded and documented in the official government gazette of that state. In other words, not having an excision means the land could be seized by the Government anytime without compensating you even if you bought it “Legitimately” from the Baale or the Original dwellers on the land.

Global or General Acquisition

Lands that are under “general acquisition” or “global acquisition” can later be confirmed ‘free’ or ‘committed’ as the case may be.

A land under general acquisition can become free by a process called excision.

There are two types of acquisition:

  1. Committed Acquisition
  2. Global / General Acquisition.

Committed Acquisition

A parcel of land is said to be under committed acquisition when the government has indicated an intention to use that land for a specific purpose such as provision of amenities.

Such lands belong to the government and can never be available for use by individuals. If you purchase land that is under committed acquisition, it will be impossible for you to perfect your land title and you’ll only be occupying the land until the government comes to kick you out.

The following documents are usually involved when a purchase is made.


1 The purchase receipt

2 The contract of sale and

3 The deed of assignment

4 The survey plan

5 The Building plan for housing investment

6 Any other title document that may apply



Land title may be defined as *the rights or ownership claim a person has over a property. It simply means, for you to claim land title, you must show other people the right you have over that land. E.g the land was willed to you by your late grandfather or you bought the property from another person and he handed over the title documents of the land or there was a dispute on the land and a court judgement awarded you the land as the owner etc.

To determine what title a person has over a property, a prospective buyer must inspect the available documents the seller is relying on to initiate the transaction.


Deed of Conveyance or Registered Conveyance was the authentic evidence of ownership until 1978 Land use Act that introduced Certificate of Occupancy.

Deed of Conveyance is old legal document used in transferring the interest of the owner of a landed property interest to the person to another whom it is assigned, the assignee. When ownership is transferred, the new legal document in use now is called deed of assignment.

A freehold is not a title. The remedy is to institute a legal document on the land like getting a Governors Consent, or C of O. (These are binding documents that can stand the test of time and stand in any court of law)


In a situation you have the C of O and survey without Deed of Assignment for a land allocated by state government. Is the documents enough without Deed of Assignment?

Answer: Government schemes mostly doesn’t come with Deed of Assignment. What government gives in this case is Letter of Allocation and through the letter of assessment you obtained from the NTDA you can process your C of O.

Question: Does this mean that “Lands have to at least be excised before it can be sold or transferred to someone else”?

Answer: You become rightful owner of the land once the government release it to you via excision.

Though Governments recognize ancestral land ownership as excision is the right of the indigenous land owners.


A Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) issued by the Lagos State Government officially leased Lagos land to you, the applicant, for 99 yrs. All lands belong to the Government.


Buying a Government barred land is risky. Government bars you from owning land it has acquired to build infrastructures such as airports, roads etc. Learn how to avoid buying a Government barred Land.

KNOW  THE DIFFERENCE Between Rectification and Ratification

 Don’t be confused. Rectification and Ratification means two separate things but they sound alike. Rectification means to correct a grave error on a document while Ratification means giving formal consent to a contract or agreement thereby making it validly official.

To understand how Rectification of Title to Land differs from Ratification of Title to land, we have to understand what a Land title means so we can comprehend it quite easily.


Is excision as good as obtaining c of o?

Is a person having excision still mandated to obtain c of o?

Answer: After a land has been excised and Gazetted then you can either process your C of O or Governor consent.

Excision does not expire while C of O expire after 99 years. The only advantage C of O has over Excision is that it can be used as collateral for getting loan in the bank


A governor’s consent can only be processed on a land with either Gazette or an Existing Certificate of Occupancy (C of O).

If a person with land with C of O decides to sell his land, the only documents that can give the new buyer or every other subsequent buyer’s the right of occupancy or ownership is a governor’s consent.

The powers of the Governor to consent to such transactions can be found in Section 22 of the Land Use Act of 1978 which states thus ‘It shall not be lawful for the holder of a statutory right of occupancy granted by the governor to alienate his right of occupancy or any part thereof by assignment, mortgage, transfer of possession, sublease or otherwise howsoever without the consent of the Governor first had and obtained” This simply means therefore that even when a buyer has secured a land with a Certificate of Occupancy, he shouldn’t stop there.

He needs to begin the process of obtaining a Governor’s consent to make that purchase legal in the eyes of the government and be rest assured his land is safe.


A Survey plan is a document that measures the boundary of a parcel of land to give an accurate measurement and description of that land. The people that handle survey issues are Surveyors and they are regulated by the office of the Surveyor general in Lagos as it relates to survey issues in Lagos. A survey plan must contain the following information:


  1. The name of the owner of the land surveyed
  2. The Address or description of the land surveyed
  3. The size of the land surveyed
  4. The drawn out portion of the land survey and mapped out on the survey plan document
  5. The beacon numbers
  6. The surveyor who drew up the survey plan and the date it was drawn up
  7. A stamp showing the land is either free from Government acquisition or not


A Gazette is an Official record book where all special government details are spelt out, detailed and recorded

A gazette will show the communities or villages that have been granted excision and the number of acres or hectares of land that the government has given to them. It is within those excised acres or hectares that the traditional family is entitled to sell its lands to the public and not anything outside those hectares of land given or excised to them.


Most people have the title documents to their cars intact and in safe places but fail to ask for the Deed of assignment to their properties which is several times more valuable than cars

A Deed of assignment is one of the transnational documents drawn up by a real estate attorney between the current title holder for a particular property and the new buyer.

In real property transactions, a deed of assignment is a legal document that transfers the interest of the owner of that interest to the person to whom it is assigned, the assignee. When ownership is transferred, the deed of assignment shows the new legal owner of the property.

The deed contains very pertinent information for a real estate transaction. It spells out the date when the ownership of the property transfers from one owner to the other. The deed also gives a specific description of the property that is included in the transfer of ownership.

It is very compulsory and mandatory for a Deed of Assignment document to be recorded at the appropriate land registry to show legal evidence as to the exchange of ownership in any land/landed property transaction in order to make the general public and government aware of such exchange or transaction.


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*La’Campaigne Tropicana Resorts*
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Product Of The Day

*Vantage Court, Shapati off Lekki-Epe Expressway.*
A Vantage Position in life accelerates the achievement of your goals.
Welcome to *Vantage Court* located inside Richland Gardens Estate Shapati along Lekki-Epe Expressway.
This estate, which is covered by a Governor’s Consent, comprises of 3 Bedroom Fully Detached Bungalows with ample parking space and children’s playground.
It is an estate inside an already existing and functional estate.
With a deposit of N1m, you can spread balance over 6 months.
When you pay outrightly, you get a 3kva solar inverter.
*PRICE:* N14.5m
*TITLE:* Governor’s Consent
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Product of the Day

*Queen’s Garden Estate Eleko.*
This estate is located in a serene environment.  It is an eco-friendly estate with an euphoria of peace and grandeur.
It is located within the industrial belt of Lagos, Eleko junction, 25 mins to Ajah bus stop.
The estate is few mins walk to the popular Eleko Beach.
Novare Mall ShopRite Sangotedo is about 20mins from Queen’s Garden Estate.
Govt. Approved Excision
– Dangote Refinery
– Pan African University
– Lekki Free Trade Zone
– The New Seaport
– 2 Golf Courses
– Several Upcoming Gated Estates.
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➖Quick returns on investment
➖Access to good facilities that are second to none.
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Land Measurements And Size

 Most people who purchase lands in Lagos don’t really understand the meaning of this Real Estate terms. As a potential buyer wishing to buy a land or build a new house you must be conversant with a few of this figures. The first hurdle is to understand the system of Land measurement in Nigeria.
In Nigeria today, Land is measured in Hectares, Acres, Meters and Feet. These measurements are affected by factors, which includes development pattern, human and environmental factors.
Lets start by asking what is the size of standard plot in Nigeria?
According to the dictionary meaning of a plot: A plot is a marked out piece of Land for the purpose of building or farming. The word ‘plot’ is an arbitrary term used to describe a land division carved out for property development.
The size of a plot can vary for different reasons but according to Nigeria’s land division, the appropriate plot for a house construction is 50 x 100ft which can accommodate a standard house with a small compound. To better understand Land divisions used in Nigeria, different units of area are used as follows:
Hectares (ha)
A hectare is one of the lease known metric units and one which potential buyers and Estate developer seems to struggle with – it is a land measuring 100m x 100m OR 328ft x 328ft OR 10,000sqm. It is about two and half acres. A Hectare consist of 15 plots.
An Acre is a standard unit of measurement used by Land sellers and it is almost equivalent to the size of a standard football field. An Acre is a product of any rectangular plot of land giving a total of 4,046sqm OR 43,560sq ft. An Acre consist of 6 plots each measuring 6 x 120ft.
In Lagos State, the standard size of a plot is 60 x 120ft ( 18m x 36m ie 648sqm), while in some other cities of the country, plots are measured in 50 x 100ft.
Most of the properties we sell are 600 square metres as full plot 400 square metres as half plot.
We choose to 400 square metres as our half plot because 300 square which is an exact half of 600 square metres would provide a narrow fully detached building, and individuals buying from an estate would want to have their compound to themselves, however if you have a 600sq metres you can build 2 semi detached duplex on it
And on 400 square metres you can build 1 fully detached house on it. A semi detached house means 2 buildings side by side, a fully detached house means a house standing on its own.
 400 square metres is 40 by 100
600 square metres is 60 by 100
400 square metres is smaller
600 square metres is bigger
 Lagos state surveys measures 648 square metres as a plot , but most estates sell 600sq metres in order to have set back and all, but measuring from the natives you have 648 square metres but measuring from estates a plot mostly goes for 600 square metres.
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Gracias Emerald Estate, Abijo

It is no longer news that Abijo is the next big thing happening on the Lekki-Epe Expressway axis, after Ajah and Sangotedo. The rate of developmental activities going on here is unprecedented. And the cost of acquiring a plot of land here has gone up to as much as N8m per plot.
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Amity Estate
Caleb British International School
Abijo GRA
Corona International Schools
Greensprings Schools
Lufasi Park
Novare Mall ShopRite
*PRICE:* 600sqms (N4.8m – Outright -All Inclusive)
*PRICE:* 400sqms (N3.8m – Outright – All Inclusive)
*TITLE:* Excision in Process (KL-9726)
This is the cheapest you can get in that axis.
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Gracias Moonstone, Affordable Luxury

Introducing Gracias Residences (Moonstone) Ibeju-Lekki.
Strategically located along the Lekki Free Trade Zone, beside Gracias Commercial Estate, this beautifully designed compact estate is made up of 10 blocks of apartments comprising 1 Bedroom and 2 Bedroom Flats.
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Nature and architectural ingenuity marry seamlessly in this serene estate. Asides it’s aesthetic beauty, Gracias Residences (Moonstone) promises to deliver peace of mind as well as meet social and recreational needs of residents, while offering a contemporary lifestyle to it’s residents as well as enduring rental value for investors.
Gracias Commercial Estate
Rehoboth Estate
Dangote Refinery Complex
Power Oil Industry
Kellogg International Ltd
Lekki Deep Sea Port
Lekki Free Trade Zone
LaCampaigne Tropicana Resort
Several Private Beaches
Several Upcoming Estates
24 Hours Professional/Top Notch Security
24 Hours Power Supply By Solar & Inverter
Treated & Constant Water Supply
Recreational Areas
Street Lights
Green Areas
CCTV Cameras
Sanitary Sewer System
Well Planned Paved Roads & Drainages
Facility Management
Outright Payment
One Bedroom Flat –  N7m
Two Bedroom Flat – N8m
3Months Payment Plan
One Bedroom Flat –  N7.250m
Two Bedroom Flat – N8.250m
6Months Payment Plan
One Bedroom Flat –  N7.5m
Two Bedroom Flat – N8.5m
9Months Payment Plan
One Bedroom Flat –  N7.750m
Two Bedroom Flat – N8.750m
12Months Payment Plan
One Bedroom Flat –  N8m
Two Bedroom Flat – N9m
For further details, kindly contact us: info@globalafricaninvestorsalliance.com
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DPKAY Estate Sangotedo

DPKay Estate is located along the Lekki-Epe Expressway, opposite Emperor and Crown Estates, immediately after the Novare Mall ShopRite at Sangotedo.
The features of this estate will perfectly suit any family, as local community, schools and business districts are well layed out.
It boasts of recreational facilities that are second to none. No worries about your kids, as proposed schools are just 5mins walk. Other international schools are within 8 mins drive from the estate
With over 70% investment increase quarterly, DPKay Estate is a perfect investment spot. Situated within walking distance of many other fantastic estates like Emperor Estate, Crown Estate, Jubilee Estate, Flourish Residences etc, it  is proposed to be finished to a high spec quality ambience, street lights, green areas, business areas etc.
Whether for high return on investment or increased luxury living, *DPKay Estate is the perfect place!*
Secure your own plot(s) NOW!
Along Lekki-Epe Expressway, Opposite Emperor and Crown Estates, immediately after Novare Mall ShopRite, Sangotedo, Ajah, Lagos.
– Good road networks
– Street lights
– Gated & secured environment
– Sports corridors
– Landscaping
– Shopping centres.
The estate will appreciate by over 70% in 12 months.
Excellent location,10 minutes to VGC
Excellent facilities
Good title
Free from any known Government acquisition.
Emperor Estate
Crown Estate
Novare Mall, ShopRite (Sangotedo) – The largest shopping mall in Lagos.
The Monastery, Sangotedo: The Catholic Monastery.
The Lagos Business School, Sangotedo & Pan Atlantic University.
Lagos Homes, Sangotedo.
Grenadines Estate, Sangotedo.
Flourish Residences Estate
Oluwa-ni-n-sola Estate, Chevron, Lekki, Lagos – The largest private Estate in Lagos.
And many others.
C of O (In Process)
660sqm / *N19m*
Promo: *N17m*
330sqms /N9.5m
For more information, please contact us by email info@globalafricaninvestorsalliance.com
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Frontier Estate is a modern arena racing you to the frontlines of luxury lifestyle.
*Title:* Certificate of Occupancy
*Location:* Bogije, Lekki
Good road network
Gated and secure Environment
Sports corridors
Shopping Centres
Street lights
Potable Water
Perimeter fencing
600sqm: NGN6, 700, 000 (Initial deposit: NGN5, 000, 000)
450sqm: NGN5, 025, 000(Initial deposit: NGN3, 000, 000)
300sqm: NGN3, 350, 000(Initial deposit: NGN2, 500, 000)
*Payment Plan:* Spread balance for 12 months
(Exclusive of Development Levy, Survey and Deed of Assignment)
Development Levy: N6000/sqm *(Optional for Cluster D)*
Survey: N500, 000
Deed of Assignment: N250, 000
Beachwood Estate
Greenspring Group of Schools
Omu resort
Bogije police station
Merrigold resort
Lekki hotel and suites
Lakowe lake and resorts
Conoil filling station
Mayfair garden club
Meridian Park estate
Eko Akate Ocean Garden
Fara Park Estate
Novare mall
For more information : info@globalafricaninvestorsalliance.com
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